1754 – Kings College opened in New York City. It was renamed Columbia College 30 years later.
1846 – U.S. annexation of California was proclaimed at Monterey after the surrender of a Mexican garrison.
1862 – The first railroad post office was tested on the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad in Missouri.
1885 – G. Moore Peters patented the cartridge-loading machine.
1898 – The United States annexed Hawaii.
1917 – Aleksandr Kerensky formed a provisional government in Russia.
1920 – A device known as the radio compass was used for the first time on a U.S. Navy airplane near Norfolk, VA.
1930 – Construction began on Boulder Dam, later Hoover Dam, on the Colorado River.
1937 – Japanese forces invaded China.
1946 – Mother Frances Xavier Cabrini was canonized as the first American saint.
1949 – "Dragnet" was first heard on NBC radio.
1950 – The U.N. Security Council authorized military aid for South Korea.
1969 – Canada’s House of Commons gave final approval to a measure that made the French language equal to English throughout the national government.
1981 – U.S. President Reagan announced he was nominating Arizona Judge Sandra Day O’Connor to become the first female justice on the U.S. Supreme Court.
1983 – Eleven-year-old Samantha Smith of Manchester, Maine, left for a visit to the Soviet Union at the personal invitation of Soviet leader Yuri V. Andropov.
1987 – Public testimony at the Iran-Contra hearing began.
1998 – A jury in Santa Monica, CA, convicted Mikail Markhasev of murdering Ennis Cosby, Bill Cosby’s only son, during a roadside robbery.
1999 – In Sierra Leone, President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah and rebel leader Foday Sankoh signed a pact to end the nation’s civil war.
2000 – Cisco Systems Inc. announced that it would buy Netiverse Inc. for $210 million in stock. It was the 13th time Cisco had purchased a company in 2000.
2000 – Amazon.com announced that they had sold almost 400,000 copies of "Harry Potter and The Goblet of Fire," making it the biggest selling book in e-tailing history.
2003 – In Liberia, a team of U.S. military experts arrived at the U.S. embassy compound to assess whether to deploy troops as part of a peacekeeping force in the country.
2011 – The world’s first artificial organ transplant was achieved. It was an artificial windpipe coated with stem cells.