Where Were You in ‘68?

Windows smashed.  Buildings ablaze, lighting up the night sky.  “Civil Rights Activists” ginning up the mob.  Ferguson, Missouri in 2014.

What’s the net result?  For starters, black and immigrant owned businesses are gone.  Families, most likely African-American, are homeless.  The only winners are the race pimps, the agitators, and the mainstream media – whose ratings go up as we sit in front of our LCD screens and watch as “those people”, hundreds (or thousands) of miles away destroy a small city.

In 1968 I was a young kid living just across the Baltimore City line.  My father worked downtown at the old Fish Market (now Port Discovery).  Here is one of my memories:

What’s the biggest difference?  One photo is color and the other is black and white.

Businesses and homes were burned.  People lost their jobs.  People had no home to return to after the tumult.

Have injustices been addressed?  Yes.  Does more need to be done?  Yes.  However, I would argue that the non-violent actions of people like Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, Ralph Abernathy, Medgar Evers, and countless others did more to bring that about than any action by the likes of Rap Brown, Jesse Jackson, or Al Sharpton.  They also managed to encourage progress rather than destroy the lives of their fellow African-Americans.

Today we have the likes of Attorney General Eric Holder stating that he “doesn’t condone the violence”.  Missouri governor Jay Nixon refused to send in the National Guard until after a full night of burning and looting.  Back then Baltimore mayor Thomas L. J. D’Alesandro, III refused to ask Maryland governor Spiro Agnew to send in the National Guard until a great deal of damage had already been done and the riot had gotten out of hand.  At least Agnew, considered a moderate, “Rockefeller” Republican at the time, took a stand and demanded that the self-identified “leaders” of the African-American community lead and denounce the violence.  Most did not out of fear of reprisals from the more radical elements inciting the riots.

Former New York mayor Rudy Giuliani last week demanded that our nation’s leaders denounce the violence in Ferguson.  Where are our elected officials?  Are they too afraid of the Al Sharptons of the world and how they will be portrayed on MSNBC?

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This Day in History – August 29, 2012

1828 – A patent was issued to Robert Turner for the self-regulating wagon brake.

1833 – The "Factory Act" was passed in England to settle child labor laws.

1842 – The Treaty of Nanking was signed by the British and the Chinese. The treaty ended the first Opium War and gave the island of Hong Kong to Britain.

1885 – The first prizefight under the Marquis of Queensberry Rules was held in Cincinnati, OH. John L. Sullivan defeated Dominick McCaffery in six rounds.

1886 – In New York City, Chinese Ambassador Li Hung-chang’s chef invented chop suey.

1892 – Pop (Billy) Shriver (Chicago Cubs) caught a ball that was dropped from the top of the Washington Monument in Washington, DC.

1944 – During the continuing celebration of the liberation of France from the Nazis, 15,000 American troops marched down the Champs Elysees in Paris.

1945 – U.S. General Douglas MacArthur left for Japan to officially accept the surrender of the Japanese.

1949 – At the University of Illinois, a nuclear device was used for the first time to treat cancer patients.

1957 – Senator Strom Thurmond of South Carolina set a filibuster record in the U.S. when he spoke for 24 hours and 18 minutes.

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This Day in History – August 28, 2012

DATES

1609 – Delaware Bay was discovered by Henry Hudson.

1619 – Ferdinand II was elected Holy Roman Emperor. His policy of "One church, one king" was his way of trying to outlaw Protestantism.

1774 – The first American-born saint was born in New York City. Mother Elizabeth Ann Seton was canonized in 1975.

1811 – Percy Bysshe Shelley and Harriet Westbrook eloped.

1830 – "The Tom Thumb" was demonstrated in Baltimore, MD. It was the first passenger-carrying train of its kind to be built in America.

1833 – Slavery was banned by the British Parliament throughout the British Empire.

1907 – "American Messenger Company" was started by two teenagers, Jim Casey and Claude Ryan. The company’s name was later changedto "United Parcel Service."

1916 – Italy’s declaration of war against Germany took effect duringWorld War I.

1917 – Ten suffragists were arrested as they picketed the White House.

1922 – The first radio commercial aired on WEAF in New York City. The Queensboro Realty Company bought 10 minutes of time for $100.

1922 – The Walker Cup was held for the first time at Southampton, NY. It is the oldest international team golf match in America.

1939 – The first successful flight of a jet-propelled airplane took place. The plane was a German Heinkel He 178.

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This Day in History – August 27, 2012

1660 – The books of John Milton were burned in London due to his attacks on King Charles II.

1789 – The Declaration of the Rights of Man was adopted by the French National Assembly.

1828 – Uruguay was formally proclaimed to be independent during preliminary talks between Brazil and Argentina.

1858 – The first cabled news dispatch was sent and was published by "The New York Sun" newspaper. The story was about the peace demands of England and France being met by China.

1859 – The first oil well was successfully drilled in the U.S. by Colonel Edwin L. Drake near Titusville, PA.

1889 – Charles G. Conn received a patent for the metal clarinet.

1889 – Boxer Jack "Nonpareil" Dempsey was defeated for the first time of his career by George LaBlanche.

1892 – The original Metropolitan Opera House in New York was seriously damaged by fire.

1894 – The Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act was passed by the U.S. Congress. The provision within for a graduated income tax was later struck down by the U.S. Supreme Court.

1912 – Edgar Rice Burroughs’ "Tarzan of the Apes" was published for the first time.

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This Day in History – August 15, 2012

1057 – Macbeth, the King of Scotland, was killed by the son of King Duncan.

1848 – The dental chair was patented by M. Waldo Hanchett.

1877 – Thomas Edison wrote to the president of the Telegraph Company in Pittsburgh, PA. The letter stated that the word, "hello" would be a more appropriate greeting than "ahoy" when answering the telephone.

1911 – The product Crisco was introduced by Procter & Gamble Company.

1914 – The Panama Canal was officially opened to commercial traffic as an American ship sailed from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.

1918 – Diplomatic ties between the U.S. and Russia were severed.

1935 – Will Rogers and Wiley Post were killed in an airplane crash in near Point Barrow, AK.

1939 – "The Wizard of Oz" premiered in Hollywood, CA. Judy Garland became famous for the movie’s song "Somewhere Over the Rainbow."

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This Day in History – August 14, 2012

1248 – The rebuilding of the Cologne Cathedral in Cologne, Germany, began after being destroyed by fire.

1756 – Daniel Boone married 16-year-old Rebecca Bryan.

1805 – A peace treaty between the U.S. and Tunis was signed on board the USS Constitution.

1848 – The Oregon Territory was established.

1873 – "Field and Stream" magazine published its first issue.

1880 – The Cologne Cathedral in Cologne, Germany was completed after 632 years of rebuilding.

1888 – A patent for the electric meter was granted to Oliver B. Shallenberger.

1896 – Gold was discovered in Canada’s Yukon Territory. Within the next year more than 30,000 people rushed to the area to look for gold.

1900 – An international force, consisting of eight nations, lifted the siege of Peking. It was an end to the Boxer Rebellion, which was aimed at purging China of foreigners.

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This Day in History – August 13, 2012

1521 – Present day Mexico City was captured by Spanish conqueror Hernando Cortez from the Aztec Indians.

1704 – The Battle of Blenheim was fought during the War of the Spanish Succession, resulting in a victory for English and Austrian forces.

1792 – French revolutionaries took the entire French royal family and imprisoned them.

1784 – The United States Legislature met for the final time in Annapolis, MD.

1846 – The American Flag was raised for the first time in Los Angeles, CA.

1867 – "Under the Gaslight", by Augustin Daly, opened in New York City, NY.

1876 – The Reciprocity Treaty between the U.S. and Hawaii was ratified.

1889 – A patent for a coin-operated telephone was issued to William Gray.

1907 – The first taxicab started on the streets of New York City.

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This Day in History – August 12, 2012

1676 – "King Phillip’s War" came to an end with the killing of Indian chief King Phillip. The war between the Indians and the Europeans lasted for two years.

1851 – Isaac Singer was issued a patent on the double-headed sewing machine.

1865 – Disinfectant was used for the first time during surgery by Joseph Lister.

1867 – U.S. President Andrew Johnson sparked a move to impeach him when he defied Congress by suspending Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton.

1877 – Thomas Edison invented the phonograph and made the first sound recording.

1879 – The first National Archery Association tournament took place in Chicago, IL.

1898 – Hawaii was annexed by the U.S. Hawaii was later given territorial status and was given Statehood in 1959.

1898 – The Spanish-American War was ended with the signing of the peace protocol. The U.S. acquired Guam, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. Hawaii was also annexed.

1915 – "Of Human Bondage", by William Somerset Maugham, was first published.

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This Day in History – August 11, 2012

1860 – The first successful silver mill in America began operations. The mill was in Virginia City, NV.

1874 – A patent for the sprinkler head was given to Harry S. Parmelee.

1877 – The two moons of Mars were discovered by Asaph Hall, an American astronomer. He named them Phobos and Deimos.

1896 – Harvey Hubbell received a patent for the electric light bulb socket with a pull-chain.

1909 – The American ship Arapahoe became the first to ever use the SOS distress signal off the coast of Cape Hatteras, NC.

1924 – Newsreel pictures were taken of U.S. presidential candidates for the first time.

1934 – Alcatraz, in San Francisco Bay, received federal prisoners for the first time.

1941 – The Atlantic Charter was signed by U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.

1942 – During World War II, Pierre Laval publicly announced "the hour of liberation for France is the hour when Germany wins the war."

1945 – The Allies informed Japan that they would determine Emperor Hirohito’s future status after Japan’s surrender.

1951 – The first major league baseball game to be televised in color was broadcast. The Brooklyn Dodgers defeated the Boston Braves 8-1.

1954 – Seven years of fighting came to an end in Indochina. A formal peace was in place for the French and the Communist Vietminh.

1962 – Andrian Nikolayev, of the Soviet Union, was launched on a 94-hour flight. He was the third Russian to go into space.

1965 – The U.S. conducted a second launch of "Surveyor-SD 2" for a landing on the Moon surface test.

1971 – Harmon Killebrew of the Minnesota Twins got his 500th and 501st home runs of his major league baseball career.

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This Day in History – August 9, 2012

1678 – American Indians sold the Bronx to Jonas Bronck for 400 beads.

1790 – The Columbia returned to Boston Harbor after a three-year voyage. It was the first ship to carry the American flag around the world.

1831 – The first steam locomotive began its first trip between Schenectady and Albany, NY.

1842 – The U.S. and Canada signed the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, which solved a border dispute.

1848 – Martin Van Buren was nominated for president by the Free-Soil Party in Buffalo, NY.

1854 – "Walden" was published by Henry David Thoreau.

1859 – The escalator was patented by Nathan Ames.

1892 – Thomas Edison received a patent for a two-way telegraph.

1893 – "Gut Holz" was published. It was America’s first bowling magazine.

1910 – A.J. Fisher received a patent for the electric washing machine.

1930 – Betty Boop had her beginning in "Dizzy Dishes" created by Max Fleischer.

1936 – Jesse Owens won his fourth gold medal at the Berlin Olympics. He was the first American to win four medals in one Olympics.

1942 – Mohandas K. Gandhi was arrested Britain. He was not released until 1944.

1942 – CBS radio debuted "Our Secret Weapon."

1944 – The Forest Service and Wartime Advertising Council created "Smokey the Bear."

1945 – The U.S. dropped an atomic bomb on Nagasaki. The bombing came three days after the bombing of Hiroshima. About 74,000 people were killed. Japan surrendered August 14.

1945 – The first network television broadcast occurred in Washington, DC. The program announced the bombing of Nagasaki, Japan.

1956 – The first statewide, state-supported educational television network went on the air in Alabama.

1965 – Singapore proclaimed its independence from the Malaysian Federation.

1973 – The U.S. Senate committee investigating the Watergate affair filed suit against President Richard Nixon.

1974 – U.S. President Richard Nixon formally resigned. Gerald R. Ford took his place, and became the 38th president of the U.S.

1975 – The New Orleans Superdome was officially opened when the Saints played the Houston Oilers in exhibition football. The new Superdome cost $163 million to build.

1981 – Major league baseball teams resumed play at the conclusion of the first mid-season players’ strike.

1984 – Daley Thompson, of Britain, won his second successive Olympic decathlon.

1985 – Arthur J. Walker, a retired Navy officer, was found guilty of seven counts of spying for the Soviet Union.

1988 – Wayne Gretzky (Edmonton Oilers) was traded. The trade was at Gretzky’s request. He was sent to the Los Angeles Kings.

1996 – Boris Yeltsin was sworn in as president of Russia for the second time.

1999 – Russian President Boris Yeltsin fired Prime Minister Sergei Stepashin and his entire cabinet for the fourth time in 17 months.

2001 – U.S. President George W. Bush announced he would support federal funding for limited medical research on embryonic stem cells.

2004 – Donald Duck received the 2,257th star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

2004 – Trump Hotel and Casion Resorts announced plans to file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

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This Day in History – August 1, 2012

1498 – Christopher Columbus landed on "Isla Santa" (Venezuela).

1619 – The first black Americans (20) land at Jamestown, VA.

1774 – Oxygen was isolated from air successfully by chemist Carl Wilhelm and scientist Joseph Priestly.

1790 – The first U.S. census was completed with a total population of 3,929,214 recorded. The areas included were the present states of Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont and Virginia.

1834 – Slavery was outlawed in the British empire with an emancipation bill.

1873 – Andrew S. Hallidie successfully tested a cable car. The design was done for San Francisco, CA.

1876 – Colorado became the 38th state to join the United States.

1893 – Shredded wheat was patented by Henry Perky and William Ford.

1894 – The first Sino-Japanese War erupted. The dispute was over control of Korea.

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This Day in History – July 30, 2012

1502 – Christopher Columbus landed at Guanaja in the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras during his fourth voyage.

1619 – The first representative assembly in America convened in Jamestown, VA. (House of Burgesses)

1729 – The city of Baltimore was founded in Maryland.

1733 – The first Freemasons lodge opened in what would later become the United States.

1898 – "Scientific America" carried the first magazine automobile ad. The ad was for the Winton Motor Car Company of Cleveland, OH.

1932 – Walt Disney’s "Flowers and Trees" premiered. It was the first Academy Award winning cartoon and first cartoon short to use Technicolor.

1937 – The American Federation of Radio Artists (AFRA) was organized as a part of the American Federation of Labor.

1942 – The WAVES were created by legislation signed by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The members of the Women’s Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service were a part of the U.S. Navy.

1945 – The USS Indianapolis was torpedoed by a Japanese submarine. The ship had just delivered key components of the Hiroshima atomic bomb to the Pacific island of Tinian. Only 316 out of 1,196 men aboard survived the attack.

1956 – The phrase "In God We Trust" was adopted as the U.S. national motto.

1965 – U.S. President Johnson signed into law Social Security Act that established Medicare and Medicaid. It went into effect the following year.

1968 – Ron Hansen (Washington Senators) made the first unassisted triple play in the major leagues in 41 years.

1974 – The U.S. House of Representatives Judiciary Committee voted to impeach President Nixon for blocking the Watergate investigation and for abuse of power.

1987 – Indian troops arrived in Jaffna, Sri Lanka, to disarm the Tamil Tigers and enforce a peace pact.

1990 – In Spring Hill, TN, the first Saturn automobile rolled off the assembly line.

1998 – A group of Ohio machine-shop workers (who call themselves the Lucky 13) won the $295.7 million Powerball jackpot. It was the largest-ever American lottery.

2000 – Jennifer Aniston and Brad Pitt were married.

2001 – Lance Armstrong became the first American to win three consecutive Tours de France.

2003 – In Mexico, the last ‘old style’ Volkswagon Beetle rolled off an assembly line.

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This Day in History – July 28, 2012

1821 – Peru declared its independence from Spain.

1865 – The American Dental Association proposed its first code of ethics.

1866 – The metric system was legalized by the U.S. Congress for the standardization of weights and measures throughout the United States.

1868 – The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was declared in effect. The amendment guaranteed due process of law.

1896 – The city of Miami, FL was incorporated.

1914 – World War I officially began when Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.

1932 – Federal troops forcibly dispersed the "Bonus Army" of World War I veterans who had gathered in Washington, DC. They were demanding money they were not scheduled to receive until 1945.

1941 – Plans for the Pentagon were approved by the U.S. House of Representatives.

1942 – L.A. Thatcher received a patent for a coin-operated mailbox. The device stamped envelopes when money was inserted.

1945 – A U.S. Army bomber crashed into the 79th floor of New York City’s Empire State Building. 14 people were killed and 26 were injured.

1951 – The Walt Disney film "Alice in Wonderland" was released.

1965 – U.S. President Johnson announced he was increasing the number of American troops in South Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000.

1973 – Lee Majors and Farrah Fawcett were married.

1982 – San Francisco, CA became the first city in the U.S. to ban handguns.

1991 – Dennis Martinez (Montreal Expos) pitched the 13th perfect game in major league baseball history.

1994 – Kenny Rogers (Texas Rangers) pitched the 14th perfect game in major league baseball history.

1998 – Bell Atlantic and GTE announced $52 billion deal that created the second-largest phone company.

1998 – Serbian military forces seized the Kosovo town of Malisevo.

1998 – Monica Lewinsky received blanket immunity from prosecution to testify before a grand jury about her relationship with U.S. President Clinton.

2000 – Kathie Lee Gifford made her final appearance as co-host of the ABC talk show "Live with Regis and Kathie Lee."

2006 – Researchers announced that two ancient reptiles had been found off Australia. The Umoonasaurus and Opallionectes were the first of their kind to be found in the period soon after the Jurassic era.

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This Day in History – July 16, 2012

1765 – Prime Minister of England Lord Greenville resigned and was replaced by Lord Rockingham.

1774 – Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed the treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji, ending their six-year war.

1779 – American troops under General Anthony Wayne capture Stony Point, NY.

1790 – The District of Columbia, or Washington, DC, was established as the permanent seat of the United States Government.

1791 – Louis XVI was suspended from office until he agreed to ratify the constitution.

1845 – The New York Yacht Club hosted the first American boating regatta.

1862 – David G. Farragut became the first rear admiral in the U.S. Navy.

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This Day in History – July 12, 2012

1096 – Crusaders under Peter the Hermit reached Sofia, Bulgaria. There they met their Byzantine escort, which brought them safely the rest of the way to Constantinople. by August 1.

1543 – England’s King Henry VIII married his sixth and last wife, Catherine Parr.

1690 – Protestant forces led by William of Orange defeated the Roman Catholic army of James II.

1691 – William III defeated the allied Irish and French armies at the Battle of Aughrim, Ireland.

1790 – The French Assembly approved a Civil Constitution providing for the election of priests and bishops.

1806 – The Confederation of the Rhine was established in Germany.

1862 – The U.S. Congress authorized the Medal of Honor.

1864 – U.S. President Abraham Lincoln witnessed the battle where Union forces repelled Jubal Early’s army on the outskirts of Washington, DC.

1912 – The first foreign-made film to premiere in America, "Queen Elizabeth", was shown.

1931 – A major league baseball record for doubles was set as the St. Louis Cardinals and the Chicago Cubs combined for a total of 23.

1933 – A minimum wage of 40 cents an hour was established in the U.S.

1941 – Moscow was bombed by the German Luftwaffe for the first time.

1946 – "The Adventures of Sam Spade" was heard on ABC radio for the first time.

1954 – U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower proposed a highway modernization program, with costs to be shared by federal and state governments.

1954 – The Major League Baseball Players Association was organized in Cleveland, OH.

1957 – The U.S. surgeon general, Leroy E. Burney, reported that there was a direct link between smoking and lung cancer.

1960 – The first Etch-A-Sketch went on sale.

1974 – John Ehrlichman, a former aide to U.S. President Nixon, and three others were convicted of conspiring to violate the civil rights of Daniel Ellsberg’s former psychiatrist.

1982 – "E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial" broke all box-office records by surpassing the $100-million mark of ticket sales in the first 31 days of its opening.

1982 – The last of the distinctive-looking Checker taxicabs rolled off the assembly line in Kalamazoo, MI.

1984 – Democratic presidential candidate Walter F. Mondale named U.S. Rep. Geraldine A. Ferraro of New York to be his running mate. Ferraro was the first woman to run for vice president on a major party ticket.

1990 – Russian republic president Boris N. Yeltsin announced his resignation from the the Soviet Communist Party.

1998 – 1.7 billion people watched soccer’s World Cup finals between France and Brazil. France won 3-0.

1999 – Walt Disney Co. announced that it was merging all of its Internet operations together with Infoseek into Go.com.

2000 – Russia launched the Zvezda after two years of delays. The module was built to be the living quarters for the International Space Station (ISS.)

2000 – The movie "X-Men" premiered in New York.

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This Day in History – July 10, 2012

1609 – The Catholic states in Germany set up a league under the leadership of Maximillian of Bavaria.

1679 – The British crown claimed New Hampshire as a royal colony.

1776 – The statue of King George III was pulled down in New York City.

1778 – In support of the American Revolution, Louis XVI declared war on England.

1821 – U.S. troops took possession of Florida. The territory was sold by Spain.

1832 – U.S. President Andrew Jackson vetoed legislation to re-charter the Second Bank of the United States.

1866 – Edison P. Clark patented his indelible pencil.

1890 – Wyoming became the 44th state to join the United States.

1900 – ‘His Master’s Voice’, was registered with the U.S. Patent Office. The logo of the Victor Recording Company, and later, RCA Victor, shows the dog, Nipper, looking into the horn of a gramophone machine.

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This Day in History – July 9, 2012

0118 – Hadrian, Rome’s new emperor, made his entry into the city.

0455 – Avitus, the Roman military commander in Gaul, became Emperor of the West.

1540 – England’s King Henry VIII had his 6-month-old marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves, annulled.

1609 – In a letter to the crown, the emperor Rudolf II granted Bohemia freedom of worship.

1755 – General Edward Braddock was killed when French and Indian troops ambushed his force of British regulars and colonial militia.

1776 – The American Declaration of Independence was read aloud to Gen. George Washington’s troops in New York.

1789 – In Versailles, the French National Assembly declared itself the Constituent Assembly and began to prepare a French constitution.

1790 – The Swedish navy captured one third of the Russian fleet at the naval battle of Svensksund in the Baltic Sea.

1792 – S.L. Mitchell of Columbia College in New York City became the first Professor of Agriculture.

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This Day in History – July 8, 2012

1099 – Christian soldiers on the First Crusade march around Jerusalem.

1608 – The first French settlement at Quebec was established by Samuel de Champlain.

1663 – King Charles II of England granted a charter to Rhode Island.

1693 – Uniforms for police in New York City were authorized.

1709 – Peter the Great defeated Charles XII at Poltava, in the Ukraine, The Swedish empire was effectively ended.

1755 – Britain broke off diplomatic relations with France as their disputes in the New World intensified.

1776 – Col. John Nixon gave the first public reading of the U.S. Declaration of Independence to a crowd at Independence Square in Philadelphia.

1794 – French troops captured Brussels, Belgium.

1795 – Kent County Free School changed its name to Washington College. It was the first college to be named after U.S. President George Washington. The school was established by an act of the Maryland Assembly in 1723.

1815 – Louis XVIII returned to Paris after the defeat of Napoleon.

1865 – C.E. Barnes patented the machine gun.

1879 – The first ship to use electric lights departed from San Francisco, CA.

1881 – Edward Berner, druggist in Two Rivers, WI, poured chocolate syrup on ice cream in a dish. To this time chocolate syrup had only been used for making ice-cream sodas.

1889 – The Wall Street Journal was first published.

1889 – John L. Sullivan defeated Jake Kilrain, in the last championship bare-knuckle fight. The fight lasted 75 rounds.

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This Day in History – July 7, 2012

1754 – Kings College opened in New York City. It was renamed Columbia College 30 years later.

1846 – U.S. annexation of California was proclaimed at Monterey after the surrender of a Mexican garrison.

1862 – The first railroad post office was tested on the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad in Missouri.

1885 – G. Moore Peters patented the cartridge-loading machine.

1898 – The United States annexed Hawaii.

1917 – Aleksandr Kerensky formed a provisional government in Russia.

1920 – A device known as the radio compass was used for the first time on a U.S. Navy airplane near Norfolk, VA.

1930 – Construction began on Boulder Dam, later Hoover Dam, on the Colorado River.

1937 – Japanese forces invaded China.

1946 – Mother Frances Xavier Cabrini was canonized as the first American saint.

1949 – "Dragnet" was first heard on NBC radio.

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This Day in History – June 28, 2012

1635 – The French colony of Guadeloupe was established in the Caribbean.

1675 – Frederick William of Brandenburg crushed the Swedes.

1709 – The Russians defeated the Swedes and Cossacks at the Battle of Poltava.

1776 – American Colonists repulsed a British sea attack on Charleston, SC.

1778 – Mary "Molly Pitcher" Hays McCauley, wife of an American artilleryman, carried water to the soldiers during the Battle of Monmouth and, supposedly, took her husband’s place at his gun after he was overcome with heat.

1869 – R. W. Wood was appointed as the first Surgeon General of the U.S. Navy.

1894 – The U.S. Congress made Labor Day a U.S. national holiday.

1902 – The U.S. Congress passed the Spooner bill, it authorized a canal to be built across the isthmus of Panama.

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This Day in History – June 27, 2012

0363 – The death of Roman Emperor Julian brought an end to the Pagan Revival.

1693 – "The Ladies’ Mercury" was published by John Dunton in London. It was the first women’s magazine and contained a "question and answer" column that became known as a "problem page."

1743 – King George II of England defeated the French at Dettingen, Bavaria, in the War of the Austrian Succession.

1787 – Edward Gibbon completed "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." It was published the following May.

1801 – British forces defeated the French and took control of Cairo, Egypt.

1847 – New York and Boston were linked by telegraph wires.

1871 – The yen became the new form of currency in Japan.

1885 – Chichester Bell and Charles S. Tainter applied for a patent for the gramophone. It was granted on May 4, 1886.

1893 – The New York stock market crashed. By the end of the year 600 banks and 74 railroads had gone out of business.

1905 – The battleship Potemkin succumbed to a mutiny on the Black Sea.

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This Day in History – June 25, 2012

0841 – Charles the Bald and Louis the German defeated Lothar at Fontenay.

1080 – At Brixen, a council of bishops declared Pope Gregory to be deposed and Archbishop Guibert as antipope Clement III.

1580 – The Book of Concord was first published. The book is a collection of doctrinal standards of the Lutheran Church.

1658 – Aurangzeb proclaimed himself emperor of the Moghuls in India.

1767 – Mexican Indians rioted as Jesuit priests were ordered home.

1788 – Virginia ratified the U.S. Constitution and became the 10th state of the United States.

1864 – Union troops surrounding Petersburg, VA, began building a mine tunnel underneath the Confederate lines.

1867 – Lucien B. Smith patented the first barbed wire.

1868 – The U.S. Congress enacted legislation granting an eight-hour day to workers employed by the Federal government.

1868 – Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina were readmitted to the Union.

1870 – In Spain, Queen Isabella abdicated in favor of Alfonso XII.

1876 – Lt. Col. Custer and the 210 men of U.S. 7th Cavalry were killed by Sioux and Cheyenne Indians at Little Big Horn in Montana. The event is known as "Custer’s Last Stand."

1877 – In Philadelphia, PA, Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated the telephone for Sir William Thomson (Baron Kelvin) and Emperor Pedro II of Brazil at the Centennial Exhibition.

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This Day in History – June 21, 2012

1404 – Owain Glyndwr established a Welsh Parliament at Machynlleth and was crowned Prince of Wales.

1788 – The U.S. Constitution went into effect when New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify it.

1834 – Cyrus McCormick patented the first practical mechanical reaper for farming. His invention allowed farmers to more than double their crop size.

1859 – Andrew Lanergan received the first rocket patent.

1913 – Georgia Broadwick became the first woman to jump from an airplane.

1937 – In Paris, Leon Blum’s Popular Front Cabinet resigned.

1938 – In Washington, U.S. President Roosevelt signed the $3.75 billion Emergency Relief Appropriation Act.

1939 – Lou Gehrig quit baseball due to illness.

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This Day in History – June 20, 2012

0451 – Roman and Barbarian warriors brought Attila’s army to a halt at the Catalaunian Plains in eastern France.

1397 – The Union of Kalmar united Denmark, Sweden, and Norway under one monarch.

1756 – In India, 150 British soldiers were imprisoned in a cell that became known as the "Black Hole of Calcutta."

1782 – The U.S. Congress approved the Great Seal of the United States.

1791 – King Louis XVI of France was captured while attempting to flee the country in the so-called Flight to Varennes.

1793 – Eli Whitney applied for a cotton gin patent. He received the patent on March 14. The cotton gin initiated the American mass-production concept.

1837 – Queen Victoria ascended the British throne following the death of her uncle, King William IV.

1863 – West Virginia became the 35th state to join the U.S.

1863 – The National Bank of Philadelphia in Philadelphia, PA, became the first bank to receive a charter from the U.S. Congress.

1898 – The U.S. Navy seized the island of Guam enroute to the Phillipines to fight the Spanish.

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This Day in History – June 18, 2012

1155 – Frederick I Barbarossa was crowned emperor of Rome.

1429 – French forces defeated the English at the battle of Patay. The English had been retreating after the siege of Orleans.

1621 – The first duel in America took place in the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts.

1667 – The Dutch fleet sailed up the Thames toward London.

1778 – Britain evacuated Philadelphia during the U.S. Revolutionary War.

1812 – The War of 1812 began as the U.S. declared war against Great Britain. The conflict began over trade restrictions.

1815 – At the Battle of Waterloo Napoleon was defeated by an international army under the Duke of Wellington. Napoleon abdicated on June 22.

1817 – London’s Waterloo Bridge opened. The bridge, designed by John Rennie, was built over the River Thames.

1861 – The first American fly-casting tournament was held in Utica, NY.

1873 – Susan B. Anthony was fined $100 for attempting to vote for a U.S. President.

1898 – Atlantic City, NJ, opened its Steel Pier.

1915 – During World War I, the second battle of Artois ended.

1918 – Allied forces on the Western Front began their largest counter-attack against the German army.

1925 – The first degree in landscape architecture was granted by Harvard University.

1927 – The U.S. Post Office offered a special 10-cent postage stamp for sale. The stamp was of Charles Lindbergh’s "Spirit of St. Louis."

1928 – Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean as she completed a flight from Newfoundland to Wales.

1936 – Charles ‘Lucky’ Luciano was found guilty on 62 counts of compulsory prostitution.

1936 – The first bicycle traffic court was established in Racine, WI.

1939 – The CBS radio network aired "Ellery Queen" for the first time.

1942 – The U.S. Navy commissioned its first black officer, Harvard University medical student Bernard Whitfield Robinson.

1948 – The United Nations Commission on Human Rights adopted its International Declaration of Human Rights.

1951 – General Vo Nguyen Giap ended his Red River Campaign against the French in Indochina.

1953 – Seventeen major league baseball records were tied or broken in a game between the Boston Red Sox and the Detroit Tigers.

1953 – Egypt was proclaimed to be a republic with General Neguib as its first president.

1959 – A Federal Court annulled the Arkansas law allowing school closings to prevent integration.

1959 – The first telecast received from England was broadcast in the U.S. over NBC-TV.

1961 – "Gunsmoke" was broadcast for the last time on CBS radio.

1966 – Samuel Nabrit became the first African American to serve on the Atomic Energy Commission.

1975 – Fred Lynn of the Boston Red Sox hit three home runs, a triple and a single in a game against the Detroit Tigers.

1979 – In Vienna, U.S. President Jimmy Carter and Leonid Brezhnev signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) 2.

1982 – The U.S. Senate approved the renewal of the 1965 Voting Rights Act for an additional twenty-five years.

1983 – Dr. Sally Ride became the first American woman in space aboard the space shuttle Challenger.

1998 – The Walt Disney Co. purchased a 43% stake in the Web search engine company Infoseek Corp.

1998 – Nine commemorative U.S. postage stamps were reissued. The stamps were considered to be classically beautiful examples of stamp engraving.

1998 – "The Boston Globe" asked Patricia Smith to resign after she admitted to inventing people and quotes in four of her recent columns.

1999 – Walt Disney’s "Tarzan" opened.

2000 – In Algiers, Algeria, the foreign ministers of Ethiopia and Eritrea signed a preliminary cease-fire accord and agreed to work toward a permanent settlement of their two-year border war.

2009 – NASA launched the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter/LCROSS probes to the Moon. It was the first American lunar mission since Lunar Prospector in 1998.

2009 – Greenland assumed control over its law enforcement, judicial affairs, and natural resources from the Kingdom of Denmark. Greenlandic became the official language.

from On-This- Day.com

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This Day in History – June 15, 2012

1215 – King John of England put his seal on the Magna Carta.

1381 – The English peasant revolt was crushed in London.

1389 – Ottoman Turks crushed Serbia in the Battle of Kosovo.

1607 – Colonists in North America completed James Fort in Jamestown.

1667 – Jean-Baptiste Denys administered the first fully-documented human blood transfusion. He successfully transfused the blood of a sheep to a 15-year old boy.

1752 – Benjamin Franklin experimented by flying a kite during a thunderstorm. The result was a little spark that showed the relationship between lightning and electricity.

1775 – George Washington was appointed head of the Continental Army by the Second Continental Congress.

1836 – Arkansas became the 25th U.S. state.

1844 – Charles Goodyear was granted a patent for the process that strengthens rubber.

1846 – The United States and Britain settled a boundary dispute concerning the boundary between the U.S. and Canada, by signing a treaty.

1864 – An order to establish a military burial ground was signed by Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton. The location later became known as Arlington National Cemetery.

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This Day in History – June 12, 2012

1099 – Crusade leaders visited the Mount of Olives where they met a hermit who urged them to assault Jerusalem.

1442 – Alfonso V of Aragon was crowned King of Naples.

1665 – England installed a municipal government in New York. It was the former Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam.

1812 – Napoleon’s invasion of Russia began.

1838 – The Iowa Territory was organized.

1839 – Abner Doubleday created the game of baseball, according to the legend. However, evidence has surfaced that indicates that the game of baseball was played before 1800.

1849 – The gas mask was patented by L.P. Haslett.

1897 – Carl Elsener patented his penknife. The object later became known as the Swiss army knife.

1898 – Philippine nationalists declared their independence from Spain.

1900 – The Reichstag approved a second law that would allow the expansion of the German navy.

1901 – Cuba agreed to become an American protectorate by accepting the Platt Amendment.

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This Day in History – June 11, 2012

1346 – Charles IV of Luxembourg was elected Holy Roman Emperor in Germany.

1509 – King Henry VIII married his first of six wives, Catherine of Aragon.

1770 – Captain James Cook discovered the Great Barrier Reef off of Australia when he ran aground.

1776 – In America, the Continental Congress formed a committee to draft a Declaration of Independence from Britain.

1793 – Robert Haeterick was issued the first patent for a stove.

1798 – Napoleon Bonaparte took the island of Malta.

1880 – Jeanette Rankin was born. She became the first woman elected to the U.S. Congress.

1889 – The Washington Business High School opened in Washington, DC. It was the first school devoted to business in the U.S.

1895 – Charles E. Duryea received the first U.S. patent granted to an American inventor for a gasoline-driven automobile.

1910 – Jacques-Yves Cousteau was born. He was the French underwater explorer that invented the Aqua-Lung diving apparatus.

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This Day in History – June 5, 2012

1595 – Henry IV’s army defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Fontaine-Francaise.

1752 – Benjamin Franklin flew a kite for the first time to demonstrate that lightning was a form of electricity.

1783 – A hot-air balloon was demonstrated by Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier. It reached a height of 1,500 feet.

1794 – The U.S. Congress prohibited citizens from serving in any foreign armed forces.

1827 – Athens fell to the Ottomans.

1851 – Harriet Beecher Stow published the first installment of "Uncle Tom’s Cabin" in "The National Era."

1865 – The first safe deposit vault was opened in New York. The charge was $1.50 a year for every $1,000 that was stored.

1884 – U.S. Civil War General William T. Sherman refused the Republican presidential nomination, saying, "I will not accept if nominated and will not serve if elected."

1917 – American men began registering for the World War I draft.

1924 – Ernst F. W. Alexanderson transmitted the first facsimile message across the Atlantic Ocean.

1927 – Johnny Weissmuller set two world records in swimming events. Weissmuller set marks in the 100-yard, and 200-yard, free-style swimming competition.

1933 – President Roosevelt signed the bill that took the U.S. off of the gold standard.

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This Day in History – June 4, 2012

1615 – The fortress of Osaka, Japan, fell to shogun Ieyasu after a six month siege.

1647 – The British army seized King Charles I and held him as a hostage.

1674 – Horse racing was prohibited in Massachusetts.

1717 – The Freemasons were founded in London.

1784 – Marie Thible became the first woman to fly in a hot-air balloon. The flight was 45 minutes long and reached a height of 8,500 feet.

1792 – Captain George Vancouver claimed Puget Sound for Britain.

1794 – British troops captured Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

1805 – Tripoli was forced to conclude peace with U.S. after conflicts over tribute.

1812 – The Louisiana Territory had its name changed to the Missouri Territory.

1816 – The Washington was launched at Wheeling, WV. It was the first stately, double-decker steamboat.

1878 – Turkey turned Cyprus over to Britain.

1892 – The Sierra Club was incorporated in San Francisco.

1896 – Henry Ford made a successful test drive of his new car in Detroit, MI. The vehicle was called a quadricycle.

1911 – Gold was discovered in Alaska’s Indian Creek.

1918 – French and American troops halted Germany’s offensive at Chateau-Thierry, France.

1919 – The U.S. Senate passed the Women’s Suffrage bill.

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This Day in History – May 29, 2012

1453 – Constantinople fell to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, ending the Byzantine Empire.

1660 – Charles II was restored to the English throne after the Puritan Commonwealth.

1721 – South Carolina was formally incorporated as a royal colony.

1765 – Patrick Henry denounced the Stamp Act before Virginia’s House of Burgesses.

1790 – Rhode Island became the last of the original thirteen colonies to ratify the U.S. Constitution.

1827 – The first nautical school opened in Nantucket, MA, under the name Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin’s Lancasterian School.

1848 – WIsconsin became the 30th state to join the United States.

1849 – A patent for lifting vessels was granted to Abraham Lincoln.

1910 – An airplane raced a train from Albany, NY, to New York City. The airplane pilot Glenn Curtiss won the $10,000 prize.

1911 – The first running of the Indianapolis 500 took place.

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This Day in History – May 26, 2012

0017 – Germanicus of Rome celebrated his victory over the Germans.

1328 – William of Ockham was forced to flee from Avignon by Pope John XXII.

1521 – Martin Luther was banned by the Edict of Worms because of his religious beliefs and writings.

1647 – A new law banned Catholic priests from the colony of Massachusetts. The penalty was banishment or death for a second offense.

1660 – King Charles II of England landed at Dover after being exiled for nine years.

1670 – A treaty was signed in secret in Dover, England, between Charles II and Louis XIV ending the hostilities between them.

1691 – Jacob Leiser, leader of the popular uprising in support of William and Mary’s accession to the English throne, was executed for treason.

1736 – The British and Chickasaw Indians defeated the French at the Battle of Ackia.

1791 – The French Assembly forced King Louis XVI to hand over the crown and state assets.

1805 – Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned King of Italy in Milan Cathedral.

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This Day in History – May 23, 2012

1430 – Joan of Arc was captured by Burgundians. She was then sold to the English.

1533 – Henry VIII’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon was declared null and void.

1618 – The Thirty Years War began when three opponents of the Reformation were thrown through a window.

1701 – In London, Captain William Kidd was hanged after being convicted of murder and piracy.

1785 – Benjamin Franklin wrote in a letter that he had invented bifocals.

1788 – South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify U.S. Constitution.

1827 – The first nursery school in the U.S. was established in New York City.

1846 – Arabella Mansfield (Belle Aurelia Babb) was born. She was the first woman in the U.S. to pass the bar exam, though she never used her law degree.

1873 – Canada’s North West Mounted Police force was established. The organization’s name was changed to Royal Canadian Mounted Police in 1920.

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This Day in History – May 22, 2012

1246 – Henry Raspe was elected anti-king by the Rhenish prelates in France.

1455 – King Henry VI was taken prisoner by the Yorkists at the Battle of St. Albans, during the War of the Roses.

1570 – Abraham Ortelius published the first modern atlas in Belgium.

1761 – In Philadelphia, the first life insurance policy was issued in the U.S.

1819 – The steamship Savannah became the first to cross the Atlantic Ocean.

1841 – Henry Kennedy received a patent for the first reclining chair.

1849 – Abraham Lincoln received a patent for the floating dry dock.

1859 – The creator of "Sherlock Holmes," Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was born.

1868 – Near Marshfield, IN, The "Great Train Robbery" took place. The robbery was worth $96,000 in cash, gold and bonds to the seven members of the Reno gang.

1872 – The Amnesty Act restored civil rights to Southerners.

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This Day in History – May 21, 2012

0996 – Sixteen year old Otto III was crowned the Roman Emperor.

1471 – King Henry VI was killed in the tower of London. Edward IV took the throne.

1536 – The Reformation was officially adopted in Geneva, Switzerland.

1542 – Hernando de Soto died along the Mississippi River while searching for gold.

1602 – Martha’s Vineyard was first sighted by Captain Bartholomew Gosnold.

1688 – The English poet Alexander Pope was born.

1790 – Paris was divided into 48 zones.

1819 – Bicycles were first seen in the U.S. in New York City. They were originally known as "swift walkers."

1832 – In the U.S., the Democratic Party held its first national convention.

1840 – New Zealand was declared a British colony.

1856 – Lawrence, Kansas was captured by pro-slavery forces.

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This Day in History – May 18, 2012

1302 – The weaver Peter de Coningk led a massacre of the Flemish oligarchs.

1642 – Montreal, Canada, was founded.

1643 – Queen Anne, the widow of Louis XIII, was granted sole and absolute power as regent by the Paris parliament, overriding the late king’s will.

1652 – In Rhode Island, a law was passed that made slavery illegal in North America. It was the first law of its kind.

1792 – Russian troops invaded Poland.

1798 – The first Secretary of the U.S. Navy was appointed. He was Benjamin Stoddert.

1802 – Great Britain declared war on Napoleon’s France.

1804 – Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed emperor by the French Senate.

1828 – Battle of Las Piedras ended the conflict between Uruguay and Brazil.

1896 – The U.S. Supreme court upheld the "separate but equal" policy in the Plessy vs. Ferguson decision. The ruling was overturned 58 years later with Brown vs. Board of Education.

1897 – A public reading of Bram Stoker’s new novel, "Dracula, or, The Un-dead," was performed in London.

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This Day in History – May 15, 2012

1602 – Cape Cod was discovered by Bartholomew Gosnold.

1614 – An aristocratic uprising in France ended with the treaty of St.Menehould.

1618 – Johannes Kepler discovered his harmonics law.

1702 – The War of Spanish Succession began.

1768 – Under the Treaty of Versailles, France purchased Corsica from Genoa.

1795 – Napoleon entered the Lombardian capital of Milan.

1849 – Neapolitan troops entered Palermo, and were in possession of Sicily.

1856 – Lyman Frank Baum, author of "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz," was born.

1862 – The U.S. Congress created the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

1911 – The U.S. Supreme Court ordered the dissolution of Standard Oil Company, ruling it was in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act.

1916 – U.S. Marines landed in Santo Domingo to quell civil disorder.

1918 – Regular airmail service between New York City, Philadelphia and Washington, DC, began under the direction of the Post Office Department, which later became the U.S. Postal Service.

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This Day in History – May 14, 2012

1264 – King Henry III was captured by his brother in law Simon deMontfort at the Battle of Lewes in France.

1509 – In the Battle of Agnadello, French defeated Venitians in Northern Italy.

1610 – French King Henri IV (Henri de Navarre) was assassinated by a fanatical monk, François Ravillac.

1643 – Louis XIV became King of France at age 4 upon the death of his father, Louis XIII.

1727 – Thomas Gainsborough was born. He was an English painter.

1787 – Delegates began gathering in Philadelphia for a convention to draw up the U.S. Constitution.

1796 – The first smallpox vaccination was given by Edward Jenner.

1804 – William Clark set off the famous expedition from Camp Dubois. A few days later, in St. Louis, Meriwether Lewis joined the group. The group was known as the "Corps of Discovery."

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This Day in History – May 12, 2012

1588 – King Henry III fled Paris after Henry of Guise triumphantly entered the city.

1780 – Charleston, South Carolina fell to British forces.

1831 – Edward Smith became the first indicted bank robber in the U.S.

1847 – William Clayton invented the odometer.

1870 – Manitoba entered the Confederation as a Canadian province.

1881 – Tunisia, in North Africa became a French protectorate.

1885 – In the Battle of Batoche, French Canadians rebelled against the Canadian government.

1888 – Charles Sherrill of the Yale track team became the first runner to use the crouching start for a fast break in a foot race.

1926 – The airship Norge became the first vessel to fly over the North Pole.

1926 – In Britain, a general strike by trade unions ended. The strike began on May 3, 1926.

1932 – The infant body of Charles and Anna Lindbergh’s son was found just a few miles from the Lindbergh home near Hopewell, NJ.

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This Day in History – May 11, 2012

0330 – Constantinople, previously the town of Byzantium, was founded.

1573 – Henry of Anjou became the first elected king of Poland.

1647 – Peter Stuyvesant arrived in New Amsterdam to become governor.

1689 – French and English naval battle takes place at Bantry Bay.

1745 – French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army at Fontenoy.

1792 – The Columbia River was discovered by Captain Robert Gray.

1812 – British prime Minster Spencer Perceval was shot by a bankrupt banker in the lobby of the House of Commons.

1816 – The American Bible Society was formed in New York City.

1857 – Indian mutineers seized Delhi from the British.

1858 – Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U.S. state.

1860 – Giuseppe Garibaldi landed at Marsala, Sicily.

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This Day in History – May 10, 2012

1503 – Christopher Columbus discovered the Cayman Islands.

1676 – Bacon’s Rebellion, which pits frontiersmen against the government, began.

1768 – The imprisonment of the journalist John Wilkes as an outlaw provoked violence in London. Wilkes was returned to parliament as a member for Middlesex.

1773 – The English Parliament passed the Tea Act, which taxed all tea in the U.S. colonies.

1774 – Louis XVI ascended the throne of France.

1775 – Ethan Allen and Colonel Benedict Arnold led an attack on the British Fort Ticonderoga and captured it from the British.

1794 – Elizabeth, the sister of King Louis XVI, was beheaded.

1796 – Napoleon Bonaparte won a brilliant victory against the Austrians at Lodi bridge in Italy.

1840 – Mormon leader Joseph Smith moved his band of followers to Illinois to escape the hostilities they had experienced in Missouri.

1857 – The Seepoys of India revolted against the British Army.

1865 – Confederate President Jefferson Davis was captured by Union troops near Irvinville, GA.

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This Day in History – May 8, 2012

1096 – Peter the Hermit and his army reached Hungary. They passed through without incident.

1450 – Jack Cade’s Rebellion-Kentishmen revolted against King Henry VI.

1541 – Hernando de Soto reached the Mississippi River. He called it Rio de Espiritu Santo.

1794 – Antoine Lavoisier was executed by guillotine. He was the French chemist that discovered oxygen.

1794 – The United States Post Office was established.

1846 – The first major battle of the Mexican War was fought. The battle occurred in Palo Alto, TX.

1847 – The rubber tire was patented by Robert W. Thompson.

1879 – George Selden applied for the first automobile patent.

1886 – Pharmacist Dr. John Styth Pemberton invented what would later be called "Coca-Cola."

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This Day in History – May 7, 2012

0558 – The dome of the church of St. Sophia in Constantinople collapsed. It was immediately rebuilt as ordered by Justinian.

1274 – The Second Council of Lyons opened in France to regulate the election of the pope.

1429 – The English siege of Orleans was broken by Joan of Arc.

1525 – The German peasants’ revolt was crushed by the ruling class and church.

1663 – The first Theatre Royal was opened in London.

1763 – Indian chief Pontiac began all out war on the British in New York.

1789 – The first U.S. Presidential Inaugural Ball was held in New York City.

1800 – The U.S. Congress divided the Northwest Territory into two parts. The western part became the Indiana Territory and the eastern section remained the Northwest Territory.

1847 – The AMA (American Medical Association) was organized in Philadelphia, PA.

1898 – The first Intercollegiate Trapshooting Association meet was held in New Haven, CT.

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This Day in History – May 6, 2012

1527 – German troops began sacking Rome, bringing about the end of the Renaissance.

1529 – Babur defeated the Afghan Chiefs in the Battle of Ghagra, India.

1576 – The peace treaty of Chastenoy ended the fifth war of religion.

1682 – King Louis XIV moved his court to Versailles, France.

1835 – James Gordon Bennett published the "New York Herald" for the first time.

1840 – The first adhesive postage stamps went on sale in Great Britain.

1851 – The mechanical refrigerator was patented by Dr. John Gorrie.

1851 – Linus Yale patented the clock-type lock.

1861 – Arkansas became the ninth state to secede from the Union.

1877 – Chief Crazy Horse surrendered to U.S. troops in Nebraska.

1882 – The U.S. Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act. The act barred Chinese immigrants from the U.S. for 10 years.

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This Day in History – May 5, 2012

1494 – Christopher Columbus sighted Jamaica on his second trip to the Western Hemisphere. He named the island Santa Gloria.

1798 – U.S. Secretary of War William McHenry ordered that the USS Constitution be made ready for sea. The frigate was launched on October 21, 1797, but had never been put to sea.

1809 – Mary Kies was awarded the first patent to go to a woman. It was for technique for weaving straw with silk and thread.

1814 – The British attacked the American forces at Ft. Ontario, Oswego, NY.

1821 – Napoleon Bonaparte died on the island of St. Helena, where he had been in exile.

1834 – The first mainland railway line opened in Belgium.

1862 – The Battle of Puebla took place. It is celebrated as Cinco de Mayo Day.

1865 – The Thirteenth Amendment was ratified, abolishing slavery in the U.S.

1886 – A bomb exploded on the fourth day of a workers’ strike in Chicago, IL.

1891 – Music Hall was dedicated in New York City. It was later renamed Carnegie Hall.

1892 – The U.S. Congress extended the Geary Chinese Exclusion Act for 10 more years. The act required Chinese in the U.S. to be registered or face deportation.

1901 – The first Catholic mass for night workers was held at the Church of St. Andrew in New York City.

1904 – The third perfect game of the major leagues was thrown by Cy Young (Boston Red Sox) against the Philadelphia Athletics. It was the first perfect game under modern rules.

1912 – Soviet Communist Party newspaper Pravda began publishing.

1916 – U.S. Marines invaded the Dominican Republic.

1917 – Eugene Jacques Bullard becomes the first African-American aviator when he earned his flying certificate with the French Air Service.

1925 – John T. Scopes, a biology teacher in Dayton, TN, was arrested for teaching Darwin’s theory of evolution.

1926 – Eisenstein’s film "Battleship Potemkin" was shown in Germany for the first time.

1926 – Sinclair Lewis refused a 1925 Pulitzer for "Arrowsmith."

1936 – Edward Ravenscroft received a patent for the screw-on bottle cap with a pour lip.

1942 – General Joseph Stilwell learned that the Japanese had cut his railway out of China and was forced to lead his troops into India.

1945 – The Netherlands and Denmark were liberated from Nazi control.

1945 – A Japanese balloon bomb exploded on Gearhart Mountain in Oregon. A pregnant woman and five children were killed.

1955 – "Damn Yankees" opened on Broadway.

1955 – The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) became a sovereign state.

1956 – Jim Bailey became the first runner to break the four-minute mile in the U.S. He was clocked at 3:58.5.

1961 – Alan Shepard became the first American in space when he made a 15 minute suborbital flight.

1966 – Willie Mays broke the National League record for home runs when he hit his 512th.

1978 – Pete Rose of the Cincinnati Reds registered his 3,000th major league hit.

1981 – Irish Republican Army hunger-striker Bobby Sands died at the Maze Prison in Northern Ireland. It was his 66th day without food.

1987 – The U.S. congressional Iran-Contra hearings opened.

1991 – In New York, Carnegie Hall marked its 100th anniversary.

1994 – Michael Fay was caned in Singapore for vandalism. He received four lashes.

1997 – Dolores Hope received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

1997 – Ivan Reitman received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

2000 – The final episode of "Boy Meets World" aired on ABC.

from On-This- Day.com

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This Day in History – April 30, 2012

0313 – Licinius unified the whole of the eastern empire under his own rule.

1250 – King Louis IX of France was ransomed for one million dollars.

1527 – Henry VIII and King Francis of France signed the treaty of Westminster.

1563 – All Jews were expelled from France by order of Charles VI.

1725 – Spain withdrew from Quadruple Alliance.

1789 – George Washington took office as first elected U.S. president.

1803 – The U.S. purchased the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million.

1812 – Louisiana admitted as the 18th U.S. state.

1849 – The republican patriot and guerrilla leader Giuseppe Garabaldi repulsed a French attack on Rome.

1864 – Work began on the Dams along the Red River. The work would allow Union General Nathaniel Banks’ troops to sail over the rapids above Alexandria, Louisiana.

1889 – George Washington’s inauguration became the first U.S. national holiday.

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This Day in History – April 26, 2012

1478 – Pazzi conspirators attacked Lorenzo and kill Giuliano de’Medici.

1514 – Copernicus made his first observations of Saturn.

1607 – The British established an American colony at Cape Henry, Virginia. It was the first permanent English establishment in the Western Hemisphere.

1819 – The first Odd Fellows lodge in the U.S. was established in Baltimore, MD.

1865 – Joseph E. Johnston surrendered the Army of Tennessee to Sherman during the American Civil War.

1865 – John Wilkes Booth was killed by the U.S. Federal Cavalry.

1906 – In Hawaii, motion pictures were shown for the first time.

1921 – Weather broadcasts were heard for the first time on radio in St. Louis, MO.

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This Day in History – April 25, 2012

1590 – The Sultan of Morocco launched his successful attack to capture Timbuktu.

1644 – The Ming Chongzhen emperor committed suicide by hanging himself.

1684 – A patent was granted for the thimble.

1707 – At the Battle of Almansa, Franco-Spanish forces defeated the Anglo-Portugese.

1792 – The guillotine was first used to execute highwayman Nicolas J. Pelletier.

1831 – The New York and Harlem Railway was incorporated in New York City.

1846 – The Mexican-American War ignited as a result of disputes over claims to Texas boundaries. The outcome of the war fixed Texas’ southern boundary at the Rio Grande River.

1859 – Work began on the Suez Canal in Egypt.

1860 – The first Japanese diplomats to visit a foreign power reached Washington, DC. They remained in the U.S. capital for several weeks while discussing expansion of trade with the United States.

1862 – Union Admiral Farragut occupied New Orleans, LA.

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This Day in History – April 24, 2012

1519 – Envoys of Montezuma II attended the first Easter mass in Central America.

1547 – Charles V’s troops defeated the Protestant League of Schmalkalden at the battle of Muhlburg.

1558 – Mary, Queen of Scotland, married the French dauphin, Francis.

1800 – The Library of Congress was established with a $5,000 allocation.

1805 – The U.S. Marines attacked and captured the town of Derna in Tripoli.

1833 – A patent was granted for first soda fountain.

1877 – Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire.

1877 – In the U.S., federal troops were ordered out of New Orleans. This was the end to the North’s post-Civil War rule in the South.

1884 – Otto von Bismarck cabled Cape Town that South Africa was now a German colony.

1889 – The Edison General Electric Company was organized.

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This Day in History – April 23, 2012

0303 – Perseus was arrested, tortured, and put to death.

1348 – The first English order of knighthood was founded. It was the Order of the Garter.

1500 – Pedro Cabal claimed Brazil for Portugal.

1521 – The Comuneros were crushed by royalist troops in Spain.

1759 – The British seized Basse-Terre and Guadeloupe in the Antilies from France.

1789 – U.S. President George Washington moved into Franklin House, New York. It was the first executive mansion.

1789 – "Courier De Boston" was published for the first time. It was the first Roman Catholic magazine in the U.S.

1826 – Missolonghi fell to Egyptian forces.

1861 – Arkansas troops seized Fort Smith.

1872 – Charlotte E. Ray became the first black woman lawyer.

1895 – Russia, France, and Germany forced Japan to return the Liaodong peninsula to China.

1896 – The Vitascope system for projecting movies onto a screen was demonstrated in New York City.

1900 – The word "hillbilly" was first used in print in an article in the "New York Journal." It was spelled "Hill-Billie".

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